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Government Of Assam Sonitpur District

Cultivation of Tezpur Litchi

Introduction

Litchi (Litchi Chinensis) is most important sub- tropical evergreen, fruit tree. Litchi is known for its excellent quality pleasant flavour, juicy pulp with attractive red  colour. A highly  flavoured squash is prepared from it’s fruit. The fruit consist of 60% juice ,8%  rag, 19 % seed and 13% skin varying upon variety and climate. Litchi is also a source of vitamin C but it contains insignificant amount of protein(0.8-0.9%) ,fat 0.3% ,pectin 0.49% and minerals  specially Calcium ,Phosphorus and iron (0.9%).

Climate and Soil

Generally it flourishes best in a moist atmosphere having  abundant rainfall and free from frost .The plant grow luxuriantly  at 30 degree centigrade. The maximum temperature during flowering and  fruit development, varies from 21 degree centigrade in February to 38 degree in June. Humidity is another important factor for Litchi. The dry hot winds in summer cause fruit cracking and subsequently damages the pulp.

Wet spring, dry summer and light winter are desirable conditions for fruiting in Litchi.

Litchi grows in a variety of soil types ,however fairly deep well drained loam, soil rich in organic matter is best suited for its cultivation. A  sandy loam or clay loam with pH of 5.5 to 7.0 and sufficient soil depth is  ideal for litchi cultivation.

Varieties.:

 A large Nos. Of variety are grown in different parts of india. The variety suitable for Sonitpur is Bombaya, Bilaity, Shahi, Elaichi, Local Var, Etc.

Planting:

 Before Planting the land should be cleared and levelled then pits of 1mx1mx1m size should be dug at the desired place a few week before the actual planting. These are kept open for 15-20 days and then refilled with a mixture of well rotted FYM/ Vermicompost and leaf mould. A mixture of FYM/ Vermicompost (20-25 Kg) and MOP of 400 gram is also recommended to mix with a basket full of soil in the pit. The pits are watered to set the mixture with the earth. Planting is done after a week. Water is applied immediately after planting.

    Litchi tree is usually planted in square system 10 mtr apart. This distance can be reduced to 7.5 mtr. For quick establishment and less mortality healthy 6-9 month old , true to type plant with fine roots should be selected, After planting the land should not be allowed to dry completely , Hence the new plantation is recommended during early Monsoon, Planting can also be done in Spring, Planting is not advisable when the weather is either too dry or too wet.

Manure and Fertilizer Application.:

Age of Plant

FYM/Vermi compost

Urea

SSP

MOP

1-3 years

10-20 kg

300 grams.

600 grams.

150 grams.

4-6 years

25-40 kg

1000 grams

750 grams

300 grams.

Application of fertilizer should be done in the month of Sept – October. The Acute shortage of NPK seems to stunt all forms of litchi growth, Under deficiency of NPK can flower but do not set fruits. The plants grown under Mg deficiency donot even bloom.

Cropping:

The litchi bears fruit 5-6 years after planting , flowering time is from Feb- March and harvesting time is May- June.

BOMBAIYA
Variety : BOMBAIYA
PIYAJEE
Variety : PIYAJEE
Variety : BILATEE